Archive for 08/01/2009 - 09/01/2009

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ZTE (Zhong Xing Telecommunication Equipment Company Limited) is a global provider of telecommunications equipment and network solutions( GSM, CDMA,CDMA2000, W-CDMA, TD-SCMA,FDD-LTE,TDD-LTE,IMS,NGN,PSTN,SDH,ADSL,IPTV,
Value Added Services) based in Shenzhen.

As one of the first Chinese telecoms equipment provider to pursue business in overseas markets, ZTE now has about 50,000 employees and 8,000 of them are working in about 100 representative offices around the world.

Since 1996, the company has provided products and services to 135 countries and regions, serving major telecoms operators in Asia Pacific, South Asia, North America, Europe, Latin America, Africa and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Through a combination of strategic marketing, product differentiation, cost advantage improvement, human resources optimization and intellectual property management, ZTE has established firm commercial partnerships with over 500 operators around the world.

Research and Development

With more than 33% of its workforce dedicated to R&D and with 10% of its annual revenues channeled to this field, ZTE has established 16 R&D centers and Institutes across North America, Europe and Asia.

International standards such as CMM and CMMI are strictly applied across all ZTE R&D management processes. Using these scientific management mechanisms and shared technology platforms, ZTE has standardized its R&D processes, shortened R&D periods, reduced costs, optimized design flows and guaranteed the performance of new products.

The company's commitment to innovation ensures that its products stay at the leading edge of modern communications technology.

By the end of 2007, ZTE had applied for around 12,000 national or international patents, 90% out of which were innovation patents with associated intellectual property rights.

In 2000, ZTE launched the world's first CDMA mobile phone with detachable SIM card. In 2004, the company launched the world's first CDMA-based digital trunking technology - GoTa (Global open Trunking architecture system) which included many technologies based on ZTE-owned intellectual property.

As a leading global provider of telecommunications equipment and network solutions, ZTE plays an important role in the international telecoms community. The company is an active member of more than 50 international standardization organizations and forums.

ZTE holds the position of Co-chairman in two ITU-T working groups and Editor of ITU-T standards including NGN, optical transmission and network security. As a member of 3GPP, ZTE has edited three standards involving 3G radio access networks and terminal systems. The company is also a board member of the WiMAX Forum.

ZTE has established strategic cooperation agreements with leading telecoms giants such as Portugal Telecom, France Telecom, Alcatel, Ericsson and Nortel in NGN and mobile systems, with Hutchison in 3G, and with Marconi in optical transmission systems.

The company has also established joint laboratory partnerships with Texas Instruments, Intel, Agere Systems, HHNEC, IBM, Microsoft (China), Qualcomm, Huahong NEC and Tsinghua University. The company has undertaken technological research alliance projects with 50 academic institutions throughout China, where ZTE is also a fully fledged member of the China Communications Standardization Association (CCSA).

ZTE corporate headquarters are located in Nanshan Hi-Tech Industrial Park, Shenzhen, Guandong Province, with domestic R&D centers operating in LianTang/Shenzhen, Shanghai (GSM), Nanjin, Xi' an, Chongqing, Chengdu, and Beijing (total fourteen worldwide R&D facilities). ZTE University is located in Damaisa, approximately 1.5 hours east of ZTE HQ, and provides training for both staff and clients from around the world. Latest figures (Q4 '06) estimate over 30,000 employees (Chinese & foreign); approximately 20,000 of these employees are inside China. ZTE established a United States presence in 1998. The U.S. headquarters are located in Dallas Texa.

Products and product deployment

ZTE Corporation's full range of network products cover wireless, data, optical transport, switching, video conferencing, power supply, monitoring, etc. ZTE also provides solutions in narrowband, broadband, wired and wireless products, including a ZTE branded line of mobile handsets. ZTE operates in mainland China, Bangladesh, Hong kong, the Philippines, Norway, Sweden, Portugal, Brazil, Romania, pekistan . ZTE has the most complete telecommunications product line in the world, covering every vertical sector of the wireline, wireless and terminal markets.

With its independent and creative R&D capability and customer-oriented and market-driven strategy, ZTE is capable of developing and producing market-leading, first-class technologies in wireless, switching, access, optical transmission, data, handsets and telecommunications software. ZTE uses this expertise to provide end-to-end solutions tailored to the specific needs of customers around the world.

ZTE is expanding overseas. A PSTN project in Bangladesh was its first overseas project. ZTE undertook ADSL broadband access projects at 16 venues and press centers for the Olympic Games in Athens 2004. ZTE was awarded a contract from Viet Nam Railways valued at VND 1 trillion (62.5 million USD) to upgrade and modernize the railway's signal and telecommunications systems. The multi-million dollar project, with planning started in 2001, includes upgrades on three lines out of Hanoi as well as several Junctions within and around Hanoi. ZTE made headway in the international telecom market in 2006 and took 40% new global orders for CDMA networks and topped the world CDMA equipment market in 2006 by number of shipments. ZTE is installing its ZTE Class 5 soft switch system in Global e Networks' Londons Dockland telecoms hub for IP-based communications between the UK and European markets.

On March 13, 2007, Reuters reported that ZTE had received the go-ahead to sell equipment based on 3G in China from the Chinese Ministry of Information Industry.

ZTE manufacture several models of 3G mobile phone which are rebranded by Telstra for use on their NextG network in Australia. Spanish telecom company will jointly manufacture and distribute 3G mobile handsets with ZTE (and now distributes ZTE MF620). Telus Of Canada is currently offering the ZTE D90 cellphone with the innovative FastapTM keypad.

Telekom 's lowest priced phone on their new 3G-UMTS network, the XT network, is a rebranded ZTE mobile, the Telecom R6, and is compatible with both Telecom XT and Vodafone New Zealand's GSM/UMTS network.

Legal controversies

The Philippines National Broadband Network controversy is a political affair that centers upon allegations of corruction regarding the proposed government-managed National Broadband Network (NBN) for the Philippines and the awarding of its construction to ZTE.

Norwegian telecominicasion giant Telanor, the world’s 7th largest mobile operator, banned ZTE Corp. from October 13 until March 3, 2009 from "participating in tenders and new business opportunities because of an alleged breach of its code of conduct in a procurement proceeding.”

The Federal Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (FEACC) of Ethiopia probed to uncover what is alleged to be a shady deal between an officer at the state-owned Ethiopian Telecomunication Corporation (ETC) and an unidentified representative of ZTE. It was recorded soliciting a two per cent kickback from the unknown ZTE staff member. In 2006,ZTE signed an agreement to provide US$1.5 billion worth of network equipment and related engineering services to Ethiopian Telecommunication Corp.

Ciri-ciri fizikal
Bangunan sembilan tingkat ini berharga RM300 juta dengan bumbung berbentuk "Terendak" . Di dalamnya terdapat dewan konvensyen dan dewan jamuan, yang masing-masing boleh memuatkan 5,000 orang dan 800 orang . Seni bina serta reka bentuk dalaman hasil kerja tangan para tukang dari Uzbekistan, yang mencerminkan kepelbagaian budaya yang wujud di Sarawak.

Dewan ini bakal menjadi mercu tanda unik seperti Menara Berkembar Petronas di Kuala Lumpur, Eiffel Tower di Paris, Perancis dan Sydney Opera House di Australia.
KeLuasnya 760 meter persegi dengan ketinggian 27.7 meter dan garis pusat 30.9 meter serta dikelilingi kawasan hijau seluas 50 hektar, termasuk taman orkid.

Ia dibina di atas bukit berhampiran Sungai Sarawak dengan panorama Astana Sarawak di sebelah kiri dan Kota Ford Margherita di sebelah kanannya

Menara Berkembar PETRONAS

(menurut ejaan rasmi) di Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, merupakan struktur yang tertinggi di dunia apabila diukur dari aras pintu utama sehingga ke puncak struktur antara 1998 dan 2004. Ia telah dipintas oleh menara Taipei 101 pada 17 October 2003. Menara Berkembar PETRONAS masih merupakan menara berkembar tertinggi di dunia, dan merupakan bangunan tertinggi bagi abad ke 20. Pengkritik mendakwa bahawa ia cuma tertinggi pada salah satu dari empat kategori yang ada, walaupun sebenarnya tiga kategori yang lain itu cuma diperkenalkan apabila menara berkembar ini hampir siap pada akhir 1996.

Perbandingan dengan bangunan tinggi lain

Syarikat minyak nasional Malaysia, Petronas, bertekad untuk membina bangunan tertinggi dunia. Walaupun bangunan lain seperti Menara Sears mempunyai tingkat dihuni lebih tinggi, kemuncak (pinnacle) lebih tinggi, dan atap yang lebih tinggi, puncak (spires) Menara Berkembar PETRONAS menjulang sehingga 452 meter (1483 kaki) — tertinggi sehinggalah Taipei 101. Mengambil kesempatan berkenaan peraturan mengenai ukuran bangunan (mengira puncak (spires) tetapi menolak antena) telah menimbulkan banyak kontrovesi di atas dakwaan Menara Berkembar PETRONAS sebagai gelaran menara tertinggi dunia.

Kejadian pertama menggunakan puncak (spire) untuk meningkatkan tinggi diwartakan sesebuah bangunan adalah apabila Bangunan Chryler didirikan. Puncak tersebut dibina secara rahsia bagi membolehkan Bangunan Chrysler berdiri lebih tinggi berbanding Bangunan Bank Mahattan.


Menara Berkembar PETRONAS dibina diatas tapak seluas 40 hektar di kawasan Segi Tiga Emas Kuala Lumpur Ia direka oleh arkitek Cesar Pelli dan disiapkan pada Mac1996.

Menara kaca dankeluli tahan karat setinggi 88-tingkat, merupakan imbasan warisan Muslim Mlaysia. Struktur asas merupakan rekabentuk yang dimajukan dari bangunan Chicago yang dibatalkan.

Untuk membuat tapak Menara Berkembar PETRONAS, bumi digali sedalam 117 meter, iaitu setinggi bangunan lima tingkat. Sejumlah 7,000 meter padu simen Konkrit telah dituangkan selama dua minggu secara berterusan. Beratnya keseluruhan bangunan 100,000 tan,

Menara ini mempunyai ciri-ciri keselamatan yang unik dan pertama kali digunakan di Malaysia. Sewaktu berlaku gempa bumi atau putting Beliung, menara ini akan condong. Kecondongannya mengikut tiupan angin kencang hingga 1.5 meter. Apabila bencana reda, menara akan tegak seperti biasa.

Terdapat 12 biji lanpu disekeliling menara ini yang berkelip-kelip 24 jam sehari. Setiap satunya berharga RM15,000. Jumlah kos pembinaan Menara Berkembar PETRONAS RM270 juta


Menara Berkembar PETRONAS

Di bawah Menara Berkembar PETRONAS merupakan kompleks membeli-belah popular, dikenali sebagai Suria KLCC

Taman KLCC

Di luar bangunan terdapat sebuah taman yang di reka bentuk oleh Pasukan Pembangunan Taman, Projek Pusat Bandar Kuala Lumpur KLCC). Di taman ini terdapat kolam air pancut, taman permainan kanak-kanak, pondok rehat galeri seni ukir dan mural.


Terdapat juga sebuah Surau yang dibina untuk kegunaan orang ramai. Surau ini didirikan berasaskan seni bina Islam dan mampu menampung sehingga 6,000 jemaah. Terdapat juga Masjid Asy-syakirin Klcc yang terletak bersebelahan dengan bangunan KLCC.

Jambatan angkasa

Menara Berkembar PETRONAS mempunyai laluan angkasa antara kedua menara pada tingkat 41 dan 42. Ia setinggi 170 meter dan sepanjang 58 meter. Tingkat yang sama dikenali sebagai podium kerana pelawat yang ingin pergi lebih tinggi perlu singgah untuk bertukar lif. Jambatan angkasa terbuka kepada semua tetapi perlu mengambil pas pelawat.

Pusat Konvensyen Kuala Lumpur

Pusat Konvensyen Kuala Lumpur adalah pusat pameran dan konvensyen utama di Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Pusat pameran dan konvensyen yang dibina khas ini merupakan sebahagian dari kawasan Pusat Bandar Kuala Lumpur, dan juga dikenali sebagai KLCC.

Maklumat Lokasi Kuala Lumpur

Status Siap dibina

Tempoh pembinaan 1992 - 1998

Kegunaan Pejabat Dibuka 31 Ogos 1999

Musnah - Ketinggian Antena/Puncak 452.0 m (1,482.9 ka)

Bumbung 378.6 m (1,242.1 ka)

Tingkat atas 375.0 m (1,230.3 ka)

Maklumat teknikal Bilangan tingkat 88 Keluasan tingkat 395,000 m²
(4,252,000 sq ft)
(1 & 2) Bilangan lif 78 (1 & 2) Kos

Syarikat-syarikat Arkitek Cesar pelli

Jurutera Thornton Tomasetti dan Ranhill Bersekutu Sdn Bhd

Kontraktor Hazama Corporation (Menara 1), Samsung Constructions dan Kukdong Engineering & Construction (Menara 2)

Pemaju - Pemilik

Antoni Gaudí
Antoni Plàcid Guillem Gaudí i Cornet (25 June 1852–10 June 1926) – in English sometimes referred to by the Spanish translation of his name, Antonio Gaudí was Spanish Architect who belonged to the Modernist Style ( ART Nouveau ) movement and was famous for his unique and highly individualistic designs.
The Casa Mila, in the Eixample, Barcelona. Gaudí was a devout Catholic, to the point that in his later years he abandoned secular work and devoted his life to Catholicism and his Sagrada Familia. He designed it to have 18 towers, 12 for the 12 apostles, 4 for the 4 evangelists, one for Mary and one for Jesus. Soon after, his closest family and friends began to die. His works slowed to a halt, and his attitude changed. One of his closest family members – his niece Rosa Egea – died in 1912, only to be followed by a "faithful collaborator", Francesc Berenguer Mestres, two years later. After these tragedies, Barcelona fell on hard times economically. The construction of La Sagrada Família slowed; the construction of La Colonia Guell ceased altogether. Four years later in 1916, Eusebi Güell, his patron, died.

Perhaps it was because of this unfortunate sequence of events that Gaudí changed. He became reluctant to talk with reporters or have his picture taken and solely concentrated on his masterpiece, La Sagrada Família .He spent the last few years of his life living in the crypt of the "Sagrada Familia"
On 7 June 1926 Gaudí was run over by a tram. Because of his ragged attire and empty pockets, many cab drivers refused to pick him up for fear that he would be unable to pay the fare. He was eventually taken to a paupers' hospital in Barcelona. Nobody recognized the injured artist until his friends found him the next day. When they tried to move him into a nicer hospital, Gaudí refused, reportedly saying "I belong here among the poor." He died three days later on 10 June 1926, at age 73, half of Barcelona mourning his death. He was buried in the midst of La Sagrada Família.
Although Gaudí was constantly changing his mind and recreating his blueprints, the only existing copy of his last recorded blue prints was destroyed by the Anarchists in 1938 during the Spanish Civil War. This has made it very difficult for his workers to complete the cathedral in the fashion Gaudí most likely would have wished. It is for this that Gaudí is known to many as "God's Architect". La Sagrada Família is now being completed, but differences between his work and the new additions can be seen.
As of 2007, completion of the Sagrada Familía is planned for 2026. They wish to do this because it is the anniversary of his death. However, this may prove wildly optimistic if the worst fears of many eminent engineers and architects are realized. They have pointed out the structural dangers posed by a tunnel for a TGV-style high-speed rail which would run within feet of the church’s foundations one might note the precedent of a metro tunnel in Barcelona’s Carmel district that collapsed and destroyed an entire city block on the 1st of February 2005. Others of Gaudí's works threatened by the city center route chosen by Barcelona's mayor Jordi Hereu for the new rail line include Casa Batllo and Casa Mila.
Design and Concept

Gaudí's unfinished masterpiece, Sagrada Familia, currently under construction.Gaudi’s first works was designed in the style of Gothic Architecture and traditional Catalan architectural modes, but he soon developed his own distinct sculptural style. French architect Eugene Viollet-le-Duc, who promoted an evolved form of gothic architecture, proved a major influence on Gaudí. The student went on to contrive highly original designs – irregular and fantastically intricate. Some of his greatest works, most notably La Sagrada Família, have an almost hallucinatory power.
Gaudí spent ten years working on studies for the design of La Sagrada Família and developing a new method of structural calculation based on a model built with cords and small sacks of lead shot. The outline of the church was traced on a wooden board (1:10 scale), which was then placed on the ceiling of a small house next to the work site. Cords were hung from the points where columns were to be placed. The sacks of pellets, weighing one ten-thousandth part of the weight the arches would to support, were hung from each catenaric arch formed by the cords. Photographs were then taken of the resulting model from various angles. When the photographs were turned upside-down, the lines of tension formed by the cords and weights revealed the lines of pressure of the compressed structure. This is one of the ways that Gaudi obtained natural forms in his work
The same expressive power of Gaudí's monumental works exists in his oddly graceful chairs and tables. Gaudí's architecture is a total integration of materials, processes and poetics. His approach to furniture design exceeded structural expression and continued with the overall architectural idea

The Brooke Raj was a remarkable achievement. James Brooke had acquired the status of an independent ruler. Sarawak flew its own flag, minted its own coinage, issued its own postage stamps, maintained a small military and naval force and had the other trappings of an independent state. Yet the position of its ruler was anomalous. Could subjects of Her Britannic Majesty be ruler of the state not itself subject to the two minds? The acquisition of protectorate status in 1888 family regularized the situation in the manner of Foreign Office could understand, and even then there was some feeling that Sarawak did not fit precisely into any specific categories.

Rajah James had established the Raj with the aid of remarkable few European officers. He relied ultimately on the loyalty of the Sarawak Malay Datus without whom he could not have ruled. For many years the relationship was uneasy, but by his death in 1868 he was the accepted ruler and his nephew Charles Johnson Brooke who have been the factor ruler in the Rajah declining years, inherited a stable political situation. Rajah Charles continued the practice of allowing the Malays leader a key rule in the Government of the state and a leading role in the annual supreme council and the triennial Council Negeri, the major Government advisory bodies.

If effective Government depended on the Malay and European elite, the maintenance of the peace of the state and the imposition of the Rajah Government upon the people depended on the warlike prowess of the Ibans, the most numerous of the Dayaks peoples. The Ibans were at ones at most troublesome subjects and his most loyal defenders. Independently minded chiefs would rise against the encroachment of the Government while those who had accepted Brooke rule would rally to its defense when the war-spear was sent amongst them and they could satisfy their lust for the battle in legalized raid upon its enemies. Plunder, heads and the excitement of war were their rewards and Rajah Charles reliance upon his Iban allies preserves these warlike proclivities despite his professed desire to eradicate them. For the truth Rajah Charles was he and Iban war leader and never failed to be stirred by the sight of the Great War PHARUS with their hundred or more be-feathered warriors massing at the beginning of a punitive expedition.

Brooke rule was intensely personal. It was undisputable autocratic. And yet it was popularly based. The Rajah and his European officers moved amongst the people they governed with freedom and ease. In Kuching certain formalities were honored and Brooke ceremony was composite of Malay and British traditions. The symbols of power were important, but the same Rajah who walked remote austere beneath the yellow umbrella on ceremony occasions was at all other time accessible to his people.

The Rajah suffered too from some of the disabilities of any autocratic regime. The aging Charles had his favorites and jealousies and suspicions marked each succession. Rajah Vyner was slow to adapt to the changing conditions of the twentieth century so that the native peoples were ill-prepared for the post World War 2 period, but that war and the modern period could hardly have been foreseen by the Rajah and his officers of the 1930’s administrators of the state that had existed largely in isolation for almost a hundred years. Loyalty to Raj was deeply ingrained, government was minimal and the personalities of Rajah and his officers were more important than policy. Of these personalities that of Rajah Charles was the most pervasive. If James was the founder of Sarawak, Charles was the builder who set traditions followed by his successor. When an officer of the post-war government visited remote areas it took him some time to relies that the Rajah the old man revered was not Vyner but Charles Brooke.

This article illustration tries to recapture something of the flavor of the Raj. Its presentation sets against its informality. Against the formal photographs of the uniformed officer from the source place the Ranee Margaret relaxing on the Batang Lupar and Resident hose in conference with his warriors. Much about the Raj appears slightly ridiculous to modern eyes. The people of Sarawak are better placed finally to judge the Brooke achievement. This article also from the source record it here as a fascinating segment of history, as a political entity unique in European rule in Asia and as having had a life of its own of interest to those who now livw in what was the BROOKE RAJ.

( Government House as now knowns as Astana )
( Main Bazaar )

( Cherko Market ) ( In front Cherko Market )

( Before Now As A Waterfront )

With the exception of Brunie town northwest Borneo was almost wholly rural when James Brooke arrived in 1839. There was, however a small Malay settlement at Kuching the centre of the Brunei Malay administration for the Sarawak river areas, it was natural that Brooke made the town his capital. From that time on the former Malay village has been the leading town in northern Borneo as well as the political, administrative, commercial and social hub of Sarawak. It has only been since World War 2 that other town notably Sibu and Miri have begun to challenge Kuching for supremacy.

race course and people

activity at main Bazaar from Thompson Road

( Now as Known as Merdeka Padang )

esplanade and Bandstand,Kuching

Then as now the town centre around the Chinese bazaar district situated across the river from the Brooke Astana and fort, the tone of urban life was essentially Chinese, the bazaar providing the focus for commercial and social life. Most Chinese lived above their shophouses or in boarding houses in the Bazaar, only the wealthiest Chinese and the small European group live in Bungalows outside the town area. Padungan Road the centre of the thriving business district today was little more than Sago factories while the suburban areas to the west and south of the Bazaar were only beginning to be developed. Among other differences India Street was joined to Carpenter Street where Bnak Negara now stand, while the bandstand and an esplanade occupied what is today the Centre Padang. No go downs blocked the view of the river from Main Bazaar. The Sungai Kuching for which the town is named was only filled in a decade or two after the turn of the century. Temples Street occupies that spot today.

Kuching Leader 1910

Leading Citizens

Encik Abdullah House in Kuching 1870

St Thomas School ( now only this part has been maintain near St. Joseph Schools )
Old Museum and Rock Road

The Chinese began arriving with the establishment of Brooke Government and soon became the largest urban group especially after large-scale immigration commenced after 1870. There was also a number of India, many of them Muslims. Many Sarawak Malays also live in Kuching and other town indeed Kuching began as a Malay town and has always boasted a sizeable Malay population. But very few Malays lived in th bazaar area most lived in Kampung across the river and to the west and southeast of the bazaar. Some of these have now disappeared. The Kampung timeless institution combined many features of urban and rural life, being in reality a relatively self-contained village situation often with in or near a town. This was even more so in the old days.

Animony Worker

Santubong Outing ( kugiran santubong )

First S.G.P Sarawak Soccer Team in 1918

The population of Kuching grew from about 6’000 in 1848 to perhaps 20’000 by 1880 and close to 30’000 by the early 1900’s. Everyday life in the town was varied. For the Chinese, the ubiquitous general’s store and sundry goods store of the Bazaar were augmented by stall and shops providing an assortment of food, drinks and entertained. Occasional Chinese WAYANGS often sponsored by opium or gambling concessionaires, helped attract both TOWKAYS and worker to the gambling stall and opium dens, then and integral part of Sarawak Chinese culture. Religious processions both Christian and traditional Chinese, the yearly racing meetings, regattas and outings to Santubong on the coast, while the Sarawak Museum, opened in 1981, was the popular spot. Rickshaws were the common mode of transportation. There were several Chinese schools as well as the Anglican and Roman Chatolic schools which were both smaller and less sophisticated than today

Malays life was more genteel. Woman were usually veiled and seldom seen outside the home, this custom only ended with the Japanese Occupation. Some Malays were extremely prominent in the Brooke administration and active in community affairs, indeed the supreme council composed largely of Kuching Malay Leaders. There were several Malay schools teaching both practical subject at the Koran, and men like the schoolmasters ENCIK ABU BAKAR provided an intellectual focus for the town.

Kuching was not the only town but pictures are most easily available for the capital. Bau, Simanggang, Sibu an Bintulu were also important in the early days. In these Outstations life was generally quieter. Bau was the centre of the great mining district where Chinese and European work for gold and antimony. The Bornoe Company ltd. Even had a railroad in the Bid mine. Although an important town by the mid 1880’s, Sibu only began to suggest the modern bustling urban area with the advance of the Foochows in 1901. More typical perhaps of the smaller outstations was Marudi, and then called Claudetown with Chinese general’s stores fronting the river and the various Dayaks costumers supplying the clientele for the Chinese shopkeepers. The populations of these towns seldom exceeded a few hundred.

The illustrations selected for this section suggest that urban life has, at least on the surface, changed more than rural life over the years. Certainly the pace and nature of social, economic and cultural change can more readily be seen in an urban setting. The face of Kuching has changed a great deal since these photographs were taken, although the main contour of the town would still be recognizable by the resident of an earlier period. If the high sailed Bandongs on the rivers have been replaced by freighters, and ATAP and BERLIAN shop houses by brick and concreted structure, urban life retains a bazaar orientation similar to former times


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