In the fields of architecture and civil engineeringconstruction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking. Normally, the job is managed by a project manager, and supervised by a construction managerdesign engineerconstruction engineer or project architect.
For the successful execution of a project, effective planning is essential. Those involved with the design and execution of the infrastructure in question must consider the environmental impact of the job, the successful schedulingbudgetingconstruction site safety, availability of building materialslogistics, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and bidding, etc.

Types of construction projects

In general, there are three types of construction:
  1. Building construction
  2. Heavy / civil construction
  3. Industrial construction
Each type of construction project requires a unique team to plan, design, construct and maintain the project

Building construction

 Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property. The vast majority of building construction projects are small renovations, such as addition of a room, or renovation of a bathroom. Often, the owner of the property acts as laborer, paymaster, and design team for the entire project. However, all building construction projects include some elements in common - design, financial, estimating and legal considerations. Many projects of varying sizes reach undesirable end results, such as structural collapse, cost overruns, and/or litigation reason, those with experience in the field make detailed plans and maintain careful oversight during the project to ensure a positive outcome.

Commercial building construction is procured privately or publicly utilizing various delivery methodologies, including cost estimating, hard bid, negotiated price, traditional, management contracting, construction management-at-risk, design & build and design-build bridging.
Residential construction practices, technologies, and resources must conform to local building authority regulations and codes of practice. Materials readily available in the area generally dictate the construction materials used (e.g. brick versus stone, versus timber). Cost of construction on a per square metre (or per square foot) basis for houses can vary dramatically based on site conditions, local regulations, economies of scale (custom designed homes are always more expensive to build) and the availability of skilled tradespeople. As residential (as well as all other types of construction) can generate a lot of waste, careful planning again is needed here.
The most popular method of residential construction in the United States is wood framed construction. As efficiency codes have come into effect in recent years, new construction technologies and methods have emerged. University Construction Management departments are on the cutting edge of the newest methods of construction intended to improve efficiency, performance and reduce construction waste.

Industrial construction

Industrial construction, though a relatively small part of the entire construction industry, is a very important component. Owners of these projects are usually large, for-profit, industrial corporations. These corporations can be found in such industries as medicine, petroleum, chemical, power generation, manufacturing, etc. Processes in these industries require highly specialized expertise in planning, cost estimating, design, and construction. As in building and heavy/highway construction, this type of construction requires a team of individuals to ensure a successful project. Industrial construction is very important.

Construction processes

Design team

In the modern industrialized world, construction usually involves the translation of designs into reality. A formal design team may be assembled to plan the physical proceedings, and to integrate those proceedings with the other parts. The design usually consists of drawings and specifications, usually prepared by a design team including surveyors, civil engineers, cost engineers (or quantity surveyors), mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, structural engineer sand fire protection engineers. The design team is most commonly employed by (i.e. in contract with) the property owner. Under this system, once the design is completed by the design team, a number of construction companies or construction management companies may then be asked to make a bid for the work, either based directly on the design, or on the basis of drawings and a bill of quantities provided by a quantity surveyor. Following evaluation of bids, the owner will typically award a contract to the most cost efficient bidder.
The modern trend in design is toward integration of previously separated specialties, especially among large firms. In the past, architects, interior designers, engineers, developers, construction managers, and general contractors were more likely to be entirely separate companies, even in the larger firms. Presently, a firm that is nominally an "architecture" or "construction management" firm may have experts from all related fields as employees, or to have an associated company that provides each necessary skill. Thus, each such firm may offer itself as "one-stop shopping" for a construction project, from beginning to end. This is designated as a "design Build" contract where the contractor is given a performance specification and must undertake the project from design to construction, while adhering to the performance specifications.
Several project structures can assist the owner in this integration, including design-build, partnering and construction management. In general, each of these project structures allows the owner to integrate the services of architects, interior designers, engineers and constructors throughout design and construction. In response, many companies are growing beyond traditional offerings of design or construction services alone and are placing more emphasis on establishing relationships with other necessary participants through the design-build process.
The increasing complexity of construction projects creates the need for design professionals trained in all phases of the project's life-cycle and develop an appreciation of the building as an advanced technological system requiring close integration of many sub-systems and their individual components, including sustainability. Building engineering is an emerging discipline that attempts to meet this new challenge.

Financial advisor

Construction projects can suffer from preventable financial problems. Underbids ask for too little money to complete the project. Cash flow problems exist when the present amount of funding cannot cover the current costs for labor and materials, and because they are a matter of having sufficient funds at a specific time, can arise even when the overall total is enough. Fraud is a problem in many fields, but is notoriously prevalent in the construction field. Financial planning for the project is intended to ensure that a solid plan with adequate safeguards and contingency plans are in place before the project is started and is required to ensure that the plan is properly executed over the life of the project.

Mortgage bankers, accountants, and cost engineers are likely participants in creating an overall plan for the financial management of the building construction project. The presence of the mortgage banker is highly likely, even in relatively small projects since the owner's equity in the property is the most obvious source of funding for a building project. Accountants act to study the expected monetary flow over the life of the project and to monitor the payouts throughout the process. Cost engineers and estimators apply expertise to relate the work and materials involved to a proper valuation. Cost overruns with government projects have occurred when the contractor was able to identify change orders or changes in the project resulting in large increases in cost, which are not subject to competition by other firm as they have already been eliminated from consideration after the initial bid.
Large projects can involve highly complex financial plans and often start with a conceptual estimate performed by a consulting estimator. As portions of a project are completed, they may be sold, supplanting one lender or owner for another, while the logistical requirements of having the right trades and materials available for each stage of the building construction project carries forward. In many English-speaking countries, but not the United States, projects typically use quantity surveyors. In the United States construction estimating professionals like members of the PAM ( PERSATUAN ASKITEK MALAYSIA ) of the Consulting Estimators FORUM are typically employed.

A construction project must fit into the legal framework governing the property. These include governmental regulations on the use of property, and obligations that are created in the process of construction.
The project must adhere to zoning and building code requirements. Constructing a project that fails to adhere to codes will not benefit the owner. Some legal requirements come from considerations, or the desire to prevent things that are indisputably bad - bridge collapses or explosions. Other legal requirements come from malum prohibiter considerations, or things that are a matter of custom or expectation, such as isolating businesses to a business district and residences to a residential district. An attorney may seek changes or exemptions in the law governing the land where the building will be built, either by arguing that a rule is inapplicable (the bridge design will not collapse), or that the custom is no longer needed (acceptance of live-work spaces has grown in the community).
A construction project is a complex net of contracts and other legal obligations, each of which must be carefully considered. A contract is the exchange of a set of obligations between two or more parties, but it is not so simple a matter as trying to get the other side to agree to as much as possible in exchange for as little as possible. The time element in construction means that a delay costs money, and in cases of bottlenecks, the delay can be extremely expensive. Thus, the contracts must be designed to ensure that each side is capable of performing the obligations set out. Contracts that set out clear expectations and clear paths to accomplishing those expectations are far more likely to result in the project flowing smoothly, whereas poorly drafted contracts lead to confusion and collapse.
Legal advisors in the beginning of a construction project seek to identify ambiguities and other potential sources of trouble in the contract structure, and to present options for preventing problems. Throughout the process of the project, they work to avoid and resolve conflicts that arise. In each case, the lawyer facilitates an exchange of obligations that matches the reality of the project.

Interaction of expertise

Design, finance, and legal aspects overlap and interrelate. The design must be not only structurally sound and appropriate for the use and location, but must also be financially possible to build, and legal to use. The financial structure must accommodate the need for building the design provided, and must pay amounts that are legally owed. The legal structure must integrate the design into the surrounding legal framework, and enforce the financial consequences of the construction process


Procurement describes the merging of activities undertaken by the client to obtain a building. There are many different methods of construction procurement; however the three most common types of procurement are:
  1. Traditional (Design-bid-build)
  2. Design and Build
  3. Management Contracting
There is also a growing number of new forms of procurement that involve relationship contracting where the emphasis is on a co-operative relationship between the principal and contractor and other stakeholders within a construction project. New forms include partnering such as Public-Private Partnering (PPPs) aka Private Finance Initiatives (PFIs) and alliances such as "pure" or "project" alliances and "impure" or "strategic" alliances. The focus on co-operation is to ameliorate the many problems that arise from the often highly competitive and adversarial practices within the construction industry.


This is the most common method of construction procurement and is well established and recognized. In this arrangement, the architect or engineer acts as the project coordinator. His or her role is to design the works, prepare the specifications and produce construction drawings, administer the contract, tender the works, and manage the works from inception to completion. There are direct contractual links between the architect's client and the main contractor. Any subcontractor will have a direct contractual relationship with the main contractor.

Design and build

This approach in Custom Home Construction has become more common in recent years in Orlando, FL, and involves the entire Custom Home Builder in the design/build process. The Custom Home Builder will be involved in all phases, early-on in the custom home build to ensure that the to complete an entire package for the . In some cases, the Design and Build (D & B) package can also include finding the site, arranging funding and applying for all necessary statutory consents.
The owner produces a list of requirements for a project, giving an overall view of the project's goals. Several D&B contractors present different ideas about how to accomplish these goals. The owner selects the ideas he likes best and hires the appropriate contractor. Often, it is not just one contractor, but a consortium of several contractors working together. Once a contractor (or a consortium/consortia) has been hired, they begin building the first phase of the project. As they build phase 1, they design phase 2. This is in contrast to a design-bid-build contract, where the project is completely designed by the owner, then bid on, then completed.
Kent Hansen, pointed out that state departments of transportation (DOTs) usually use design build contracts as a way of getting projects done when states don't have the resources. In DOTs, design build contracts are usually used for very large projects.

Management procurement systems

n this arrangement the client plays an active role in the procurement system by entering into separate contracts with the designer (architect or engineer), the construction manager, and individual trade contractors. The client takes on the contractual role, while the construction or project manager provides the active role of managing the separate trade contracts, and ensuring that they all work smoothly and effectively together.
Management procurement systems are often used to speed up the procurement processes, allow the client greater flexibility in design variation throughout the contract, the ability to appoint individual work contractors, separate contractual responsibility on each individual throughout the contract, and to provide greater client control.

In construction, the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) is the governmental agency or sub-agency which regulates the construction process. In most cases, this is the municipality in which the building is located. However, construction performed for supra-municipal authorities are usually regulated directly by the owning authority, which becomes the AHJ.
During the planning of a building, the zoning and planning boards of the AHJ will review the overall compliance of the proposed building with the municipal General Plan and zoning regulations. Once the proposed building has been approved, detailed civil, architectural, and structural plans must be submitted to the municipal building department(and sometimes the public works department) to determine compliance with the building code and sometimes for fit with existing infrastructure. Often, the municipal fire department will review the plans for compliance with fire-safety ordinances and regulations.
Before the foundation can be dug, contractors are typically required to verify and have existing utility lines marked, either by the utilities themselves or through a company specializing in such services. This lessens the likelihood of damage to the existing electrical, water, sewage, phone, and cable facilities, which could cause outages and potentially hazardous situations. During the construction of a building, the municipal building inspector inspects the building periodically to ensure that the construction adheres to the approved plans and the local building code. Once construction is complete and a final inspection has been passed, an occupancy permit may be issued.
An operating building must remain in compliance with the fire code. The fire code is enforced by the local fire department.
Changes made to a building that affect safety, including its use, expansion, structural integrity, and fire protection items, usually require approval of the AHJ for review concerning the building code.

There are many routes to the different careers within the construction industry which vary by country. However, there are three main tiers of careers based on educational background which are common internationally:
  • Unskilled and Semi-Skilled - General site labour with little or no construction qualifications.
  • Skilled - On-site managers whom possess extensive knowledge and experience in their craft or profession.
  • Technical and Management - Personnel with the greatest educational qualifications, usually graduate degrees, trained to design, manage and instruct the construction process.
Skilled occupations in the UK require further education qualifications, often in vocational subject areas. These qualifications are either obtained directly after the completion of compulsory education or through "on the job" apprenticeship training. In the UK, 8500 construction-related apprenticeships were commenced in 2007.
Technical and specialised occupations require more training as a greater technical knowledge is required. These professions also hold more legal responsibility. A short list of the main careers with an outline of the educational requirements are given below:
  • Architect - Typically holds 1, Undergraduate 3 year degree in architecture + 1, Post-Graduate 2 year degree (DipArch or BArch) in architecture plus 24 months experience within the industry. To use the title "architect" the individual must be registered on the Architects Registration Board register of Architects.
  • Civil Engineer - Typically holds a degree in a related subject. The Chartered Engineer qualification is controlled by the Institution of Civil Engineers. A new university graduate must hold a master's degree to become chartered, persons with bachelor's degrees may become an Incorporated Engineer.
  • Building Services Engineer - Often referred to as an "M&E Engineer" typically holds a degree in mechanical or electrical engineering. Chartered Engineer status is governed by the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers.
  • Project Manager - Typically holds a 4-year or greater higher education qualification, but are often also qualified in another field such as quantity surveying or civil engineering.
  • Quantity Surveyor - Typically holds a master's degree in quantity surveying. Chartered status is gained from the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors.
  • Structural Engineer - Typically holds a bachelors or master's degree in structural engineering, new university graduates must hold a master's degree to gain chartered status from the Institution of Structural Engineers.
In 2010 a salary survey revealed the differences in remuneration between different roles, sectors and locations in the construction and built environment industry. The results showed that areas of particularly strong growth in the construction industry, such as the Middle East, yield higher average salaries than in the UK for example. The average earning for a professional in the construction industry in the Middle East, across all sectors, job types and levels of experience, is £42,090, compared to £26,719 in the UK. This trend is not necessarily due to the fact that more affluent roles are available however as architects with 14 or more years experience working in the Middle East earns on average £43,389 per annum, compared to £40,000 in the UK.


The first buildings were huts and shelters, constructed by hand or with simple tools. As cities grew during the Bronze Age, a class of professional craftsmen, like bricklayers and carpenters, appeared. Occasionally, slaves were used for construction work. In the Middle Ages, these were organized into guilds. In the 19th century, steam-powered machinery appeared, and later diesel- and electric powered vehicles such as cranes, excavators and bulldozers. Modern-day Construction involves creating awesome structures that can show the beauty and creativity of the human intellect.


Understanding Raised Floor Systems for the

credits : The Access Flooring Company
Unit 5 Hortons Way
Westerham Kent TN16 1BT

Current Specifications
Current Specifications fall into two main categories: those of the UK
standard which is compliant with MOB PF2 PS and those that are not. MOB
PF2 PS is the adopted standard for UK installations. European standards are
normally determined by the German DIN standard. The main differences
between the MOB PF2 PS and the DIN standard being that for loading
values the DIN standard adopts a safety factor of 2 and the UK standard
adopts a safety factor of 3. The other main difference between the UK and
DIN standards is that the DIN standard requires a more vigorous fire rating
in the manufacture of the materials. All UK pedestals will also have 100 mm
x 100 mm base, whereas the European standard normally calls for a smaller
size. All UK panels will be totally encased in steel. Under the MOB PF2 PS
panels must be designed to last 25 years and the understructure 50 years.
The majority of raised flooring manufactured comes in a standard 600 mm x
600 mm floor panel size.
The MOB PF2 PS calls for three grades of floor. Their relative loads are
listed below:

The systems shall sustain three times the particular static loadings for 5
minutes without collapse with the exception of the 11 kN four point static
load required for the EXTRA HEAVY GRADE which shall be 2 times for 5
minutes without collapse. The system shall be capable of withstanding this
load at any of the positions which has been subjected to the particular static
load test.

Your first decision when specifying should be the GRADE of flooring you
Finished Floor Heights (FFH) or VOID
The next decision you need to make is the height of the raised floor above
your existing slab or sub-floor. This can be expressed as a FINISHED
FLOOR HEIGHT or as a clear VOID space. In the event you specify clear
void space the thickness of the panel will be added to this figure to give the
Please note that when floor systems go above 450 mm it is recommended
that stringers are installed. Stringers are a lateral support between pedestal
heads and their use will result in an increase in the cost. However, I have
seen many installations up to 800 mm with no stringers where the
manufacturer has not installed them, as he has left them as an either/or item
in his quote and has omitted to tell the client that his system is then not
MOB PF2 PS compliant at that height without stringers. This is a common
problem - as a personal recommendation one should insist on stringers above
There are many coverings that can be chosen for factory application to
Raised Floor Panels, some examples are given below. The most common
type of floor panel is a bare finished panel; standard practice is to then finish
with 500 mm x 500 mm carpet tiles laid off grid on a tackifier adhesive.

Installation Environment
The proper installation environment is essential if a good installation is to be
achieved. A good document to specify is the K41 specification in which you
can insert your required Panel GRADE, Finished Floor Height and Floor
Finish. This Document is examined in depth in the link K41.DOC
Non Compliant Systems
There are a number of non-compliant systems on the market and these can
produce significant cost savings over a fully compliant system. They can
provide a good alternative solution to traditional timber and joist
construction. These normally consist of a high density particleboard panel
installed on a pedestal of steel or block, for longevity it is wise to choose one
which has steel adjustable understructure as maintenance can be high on
concrete block installations.
The views expressed herein are those of The Access Flooring Company and are intended
as a guide only and no liability will be accepted for reliance on these views in isolation or
without full knowledge of requirements or specific conditions that prevail for the
particular Project.

Raised Access Floor System Selector

1 What is the application for which your floor will be used ?

2 What is the Loading that will imposed on the floor when in operation ?

3 What is the Height of the Floor above the sub floor ?


1. They don’t recognize a confined space
A confined space has few ways in or out and they may be difficult to get into or out of. They are not intended to be occupied by human beings on a regular basis and they may contain a hazardous atmosphere or other recognized safety and health hazard.

2. They trust their senses
We think that if a space looks safe, it is safe. But most hazardous atmospheres are invisible. You cannot see, taste or smell most toxic and deadly atmospheres.

3. They underestimate the danger
Before you finish reading a simple eighteen word sentences like this one, methane gas can knock you out. Exposure to some organic vapors may not kill you until the next day. Before entering a confined space, the person supervising the crew going in should make sure of the following: the personnel entering the space is knowledgeable of the hazards and have proper safety equipment; the volume is isolated, at atmospheric pressure and tagged; the monitoring requirements have been established and the area is properly posted.

4. They do not stay on guard Often, a person will forget that a hazard may develop after they have entered a space. Sometimes, the work you are doing inside the confined space causes the atmosphere to become deadly. If this is a possibility, testing for the space must be an ongoing process, not just something you do before someone enters.

5. They try to rescue other people
It is human nature to help a person in trouble. But the sad fact is that untrained rescuers usually die along with the victim they are trying to save. Holding your breath is not enough protection in a confined space that is filled with a hazardous vapor, is oxygen deficient, or is blanketed with smoke.

Calling for help is the most important thing you can do to save the life of a person who is unconscious in a confined space. Only if you have appropriate rescue equipment and personnel available should a rescue attempt be made.

When operating a car, driving is your first responsibility. When using your wireless phone behind the wheel of a car, practice good common sense and remember the following tips:

1. Get to know your wireless phone and its features such as speed dial and redial. Carefully read your instruction manual and learn to take advantage of valuable features most phones offer, including automatic redial and memory. Also, work to memorize the phone keypad so you can use the speed dial function without taking attention off the road.

2. When available, use a hands-free device. A number of hands-free wireless phone accessories are readily available today. Whether you choose an installed mounted device for your wireless phone or a speaker phone accessory, take advantage of these devices if available to you.

3. Position your wireless phone within easy reach. If you get an incoming call at an inconvenient time, if possible, let your voicemail answer it for you.

4. Suspend conversations during hazardous driving conditions. Let the person you are speaking with know you are driving; if necessary, suspend the call in heavy traffic. Rain, sleet, can be hazardous, but so is heavy traffic. As a driver, your first responsibility is to pay attention to the road.
5. Do not take notes or look up phone numbers while driving. If you are reading an address book or business card, or writing a “to-do” list while driving a car, you are not watching where you are going. It is common sense.

6. Dial sensibly and assess the traffic; if possible, place calls when you are not moving or before pulling into traffic. Try to plan your call before you begin your trip or attempt to coincide your calls with times you may be stopped at a stop sign or red light. But if you need to dial while driving, follow this simple tip-dial a few numbers, check the road and your mirrors, then continue.

7. Do not engage in stressful or emotional conversations that may be distracting. Make people you are talking with aware you are driving and if necessary, suspend conversations which have the potential to divert your attention from the road.

8. Use your wireless phone to call for help. Your wireless phone is one of the greatest tools you can own to protect yourself and your family in dangerous situations with your phone at your side, help is only three numbers away. Dial 999 or other local emergency numbers in the case of fire, traffic accident, road hazard or medical emergency. Remember, it is a free call on your wireless phone!

9. Use your wireless phone to help others in emergencies. Your wireless phone provides you a perfect opportunity to be a “Good Samaritan” in your community. If you see an auto accident, crime in progress or other serious emergency where lives are in danger, call 999 or other local emergency numbers, as you would want others to do for you.

10. Call roadside assistance or a special wireless non-emergency assistance number when necessary. Certain situations you encounter while driving may require attention, but are not urgent enough to merit a call for emergency services. But you can still use your wireless phone to lend a hand. If you see a broken-down vehicle posing no serious hazard, a broken traffic signal, a minor traffic accident where no one appears injured or a vehicle you know to be stolen, call roadside assistance or another special non-emergency wireless number.

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Download Forms :

Amphitheatre [446688 ext. 134]
This is an open air public performance stage with the latest stage-of-the-art sound reinforcement system. You may want to use it to organize an opera, a play or a show by using the amphitheatre. A rental fee is charged. Call the Technical Unit of Corporate & Public Relations Division for reservation.

Assessment Rates 446157. [446688 ext. 100. 103. 104105. 107. 108 & 109]
1. If you misplace or lose your bills. Where to obtain copy bills?
a) Call Rating & Valuation Division.
b) Or come personally to:
  • Rating and Valuation Division, 1st floor, Bukit Siol, 93050, Petra Jaya, Kuching...or
  • DBKU Service Counter, Jalan Satok 93400 Kuching
2. Have you moved house?
Please inform Rating & Valuation of your latest address so that your bills can reach you in time for payment to avoid unnecessary surcharge fee for late payment.
3. Buying over a property ?
Please check with Rating and Valuation Division for any outstanding rates owing by the transferor in respect of the subject property.
Assessment fee will be issued in your name upon submission of relevant transfer documents.
4. Installment Payment
For further enquiries on this installment payment scheme, please contact Rating & Valuation Division.
5. Rebate of Rates if property remained unoccupied or unused.
Buildings that remain unoccupied and unused for period of not less that 3 consecutive months may be entitles to rebate of rates provided notice in writing has been given to DBKU within 14 days of any such vacancy. For more information. Contact Rating & Valuation Division.
6. Surcharge Fee
Any payment after the last day for payment will be subjected to surcharged fee of 1% per months thereof. For further enquiries. Call Rating & Valuation Division.
So remember the last date for payment:
1st half year : 31st May
2nd half year : 31st October
7. SKBS - Sistem Keluaran Bil Setempat
This is a new service introduced to enable rate-payers of DBKU, MBKS and MPP to obtain any current or outstanding or surcharge bills of the above mentioned local authorities at any one of the following Counters and pay there as well.
a)  DBKU Service Counter, Al-Idrus Commercial Centre, Jalan Satok. 93400 Kuching.
b)  DBKU Service Counter, 1st Floor, Bukit Siol, Jalan Sen. 93050 Kuching.
c) Rating & Valuation Counter., 2nd Floor, Dewan Bandaraya Kuching Selatan, Jalan Padungan, 93675, Kuching.
d) Rating & Valuation Counter, Padawan Municipal Council10 Mile Bazaar, Penrissen Road, 93250 Kuching
Auditorium DBKU [446688 ext.. 134]
We have a 300-sear capacity auditorium which is sound proof with high standard acoustic feature as well as AW, sound and lighting system. It is most suitable for stage performance , e.g., show bandas, opera, bangsawan as well as corporate presentation, seminars, meetings, etc. it is available of rent. Call our Technical Unit of Corporate & Public Relations Division for information.

Banners [448762]
Permit is required before you can hang banners. For further information, please call Enforcement & Security Division.

Building Alteration   [446688 ext. 202 & 212]
Application of permit for minor or building alterations is handled by our Building Division. For further information , please call Building Control Unit of Building Division.

Building Control     [446688]
Our Building Division ensures that completed building works meet the minimum standard for health and safety. We proses Applications and check building works to make sure it complies with building regulations. For general building control and application forms, contact Building Control Unit of Building Division.

Building Enforcement   [446688 ext. 202 & 212]
Unauthorised building works and structure is an offence under the Sarawak Building Ordinance 1994. For further information, or to report breaches, please contact our Building Control Unit.

Building Plans    [446688 ext. 202 & 212]
Submission of building plans for approval is handled by Building Control Unit of Building Division. For further information , please call 446688 ext. 202 & 212.

Bulky Waste
(see Garden Waste)

Cat Museum    [446688 ext. 805/Fax. 446414]
The cat museum house a collection of cat artifacts, believed to be the only one in the world. Visit the museum from 9.00 am to 5.00 pm on Mondays to Saturdays (it is close on public holidays). For enquires, please call DBKU’s Cat Museum.

City Cleaning
(see Street Cleaning, Garbage Collection)

Comparks Infoline   [416688]
Compound processes are handled by the Law Division which can be contacted at our COMPARKS infoline 416688.

Complaints    [446644/Fax. 446414]
We aim to provide high quality services to meet your needs. We value comments from you if you think we could improve. If you want to make a suggestion or comment, please call our Hotline.

Contract Payments    [446688 ext. 137 & 138]
All contract payments shall be made within 30 days upon receiving invoice from contractors.

Desludging of Septic Tanks
(see Sewerage and Pollution Control)

Our Environmental Health Division can answer general enquiries and deals with complaints from public on stray dogs, Please contact us for further details.

Drainage and Irrigation    [448944, 448899 ext. 32, 446644]
Matters relating to drain clearing or blocked irrigation are handled by our River & Drain Management Division. If you have any query or comment, please call us.

Environmental Health Enforcement      [448763 ext. 17/Fax. 448766]
We have a unit that enforces all the related health laws of DBKU . Abandoned houses, rank vegetation , illegal dumping and nuisances are being monitored and dealt with here. The other areas of control are open burning and unsanitary work sites. For further information , please call our Health enforcement Unit of Environmental Health Division.

Food Quality Control and Hygiene    [234654, 234657, 446644/Fax. 259853]
We are working constantly to enforce food legislation. If you have any complaint about food premises, please call Licensing & Small Business Management Division.

Fountain Rentals     [446688 ext. 221]
Portable fountains are available for rent. There is a charge for this service and it is inclusive of transportation, installation and lights for decorations. Request for this service must be in writing. For further information, please contact Landscape Maintenance Unit of Planning, Parks & Recreation Division.

Garbage Collection     [448763, 446644]
We collect rubbish twice or 3 times a week depending on the area. If you want to find out the time for your area or need more information , or have a suggestion or complaint about the service , please ring our Hotline or call directly our Environmental Health Division.

Garden Waste     [448763 / Fax.448766]
The daily garbage collection does not cover collection of garden waste or bulky waste. There is a minimal charge for this service. Please call our Environmental Health Division for further information.

Hotline   [446644]
The Hotline is for general purpose and easy for you to remember call us on this line 24 hours a day.

Library    [248099, 244403/Fax. 240920]
The city library is open to all. We have a general range of books, newspapers and provide internet connections. There is a small charge for one services. We welcome children, and there are many activities for them during the schools holidays. To find out more, pick a leaflet from the library or call the City Library.

Licensing    [234654, 234657/Fax.239853]
We grant licenses for business premises such as recreational & entertainment premises, hotels, supermarket, food outlets, petroleum, food and drinks, hair saloon and other businesses. For queries, please call Licensing & Small Business Management Division.

Light Industry Building    [446688 ext. 202 & 212/Fax. 446414]
Application for permit for light industry building is handled by Building Control Unit of Building Division.

Mobile Counter Service   [44668 ext, 112, 253542/Fax 446414]
We provide mobile Counter Service to collect rates for these areas a month before the rates due dates.
  1. Santubong
  2. Buntal
  3. Pasir Pandak
  4. Bako
  5. Muara Tebas
  6. Sejingkat
  7. Selabat
  8. Senari
  9. Goebilt
For further information please call Service Counter Unit of Finance & System Division.

Mobile Toilets    [448765]
We provide mobile toilet service for a minimal fee. For further information , please call Environmental Health Division.

Parking Compounds    [253542]
Parking Compounds shall be paid at DBKU Counter, Jalan Satok. within 14 days.
“Decide how long you wish to park and display your coupon(s) correctly.”

Parking Coupons
Available at all parking booths and authorized agents within Kuching City. Parking booths open from 8.00 am to 5.00 pm on Mondays to Fridays. and 8.00 am to 1.00 pm on Saturdays. Other parking which is paid within valid time shall be paid at any of the booths!
“Always keep a book of 20 cent and 80 cent in your car.”

Parking Space    [446688 ext. 127, 128 & 129]
Doing building alteration which involves car parking space should be reported to Parking Control Unit of Parking Division.

Parks and Recreation
There are a number of public park around the City for public use. We maintain the plants, greens and trees. Please report to us if you see any item being vandalized by calling the Landscape Maintenance Unit of Planning, Parks & Recreation Division. The parks are at:
  • Amphitheatre
  • Garden of Fame
  • Padang Merdeka
  • Pengkalan Sapi (City Garden)
  • Taman Budaya (Resevoir Park)
  • Tugu Pahlawan
  • Were Road Garden
  • Islamic Garden
  • Bukit Siol Park
  • and many others at residential areas.
Payment    [446688 ext. 115& 118]
If you have claims for service and supplies you made for DBKU, please send your invoice's) together with the original purchase/service order and we will process it within one month. Call Payment Unit of Finance & System Division for further information.

Pentarama    [446688 ext. 204]
There is a revolving banquet hall, with capacity for 180 persons at DBKU Building, Bukit Siol. It is usually used for social as well as official functions. It has one of the most panoramic views of Kuching City. See it day or night!!! It is available for rental. Please contact Building Maintenance Unit of Building Division for further information.

Pest Control    [448763 ext. 16/Fax: 448766]
The vector control team from Environmental Health Division carries out pest control work on rats, termites, mosquitoes, etc. in your home or business premise. A nominal fee will be charged. Please call Vector Unit to find our more.

Plan Service and Bureau    [446688 ext. 202 & 213]
This bureau assists in the management and preparation of building plans to those who are in the lo income bracket. For further information, contact the Building Control Unit, Building Division.

The Environmental Health Division deals with ways to control pollution in the City. To find out more, please call our line.

We do have potted plants rental service within the area of Kuching North City Hall. The charges are based on the types of the plants. This service is inclusive of arrangement and transportation and request for it must be in writing. For further information, please contact Landscape Maintenance Unit of Planning, Parks & Recreation Division.

PUBLIC COMPLAINT BUREAU    [446688, 446644/Fax: 446414]
If you have any complaint or enquiry concerning DBKU’s services, please call the Public Complaint Bureau.

PUBLIC TOILETS    [448763 ext. 13]
There are 18 public toilets in the City. There is a 20 sen charge for each entry. All the public toilets are inspected everyday to ensure a high standard of cleanliness. If you see toilets that are not clean, please call Sewerage Management Unit, Environmental Health Division.

RECYCLING    [448763 ext. 15]
We are committed to recycling and are continually trying to improve the range of facilities available. For more information about recycling and where to find your nearest drop off centers for paper, carton boxes, iron rods, aluminum cans, please contact the Waste Minimization Unit of Environmental Health Division.

(see Garbage Collection)

Architects and engineers who wish to practice in Kuching North City Hall’s area must register with Building Control Unit, Building Division.'

RIVER CLEARING    [448935, 448899 ext. 34]
The River & Drain Management Division ensures that the Sarawak River is clean and free of floating rubbish. Please report floating rubbish in the river so as to enable us to take prompt action.

ROADS AND PAVEMENTS    [448899 ext. 29, 446644]
We look after the roads, pavement, roadside grass cutting and traffic signs. Help us to keep them in good condition by reporting any potholes defects or obstruction on the roads or pavements. Call the Road Maintenance Unit, Road Management Division for further information.

ROADWORK    [448899 ext. 29]
There is a scheme as well as quality standards to ensure that public utilities (for example SESCO, Telecom, KWB) and City Hall contractors carry out roadwork's in a considerate way. You can make report about roadwork's by calling Road Maintenance Unit, Road Management Division.

RULES AND REGULATIONS    [446688 ext. 210]
The Law Division provides the public with rules and regulations governing the City Hall. Please call Law Division if you need more information.

There are 2 counters at various locations to enable the community to pay their bills - from utilities bills, rates, licenses to compounds. Parking coupons are also on sale at these counters.
The counters are at:
1. Al-Idrus Commercial Centre, Jalan Satok
2. 1st Floor Bangunan DBKU, Bukit Siol, Jalan Semariang.
Wee accept payment in the form of cash, cheque and credit cards. For further information , please call Service Counter Unit, Finance & System Division.

We assist in setting up environmental clubs in schools to inculcate health and environmental consciousness. For more information, please call Health Education Unit of Environmental Health Division.

SEASON PARKING [446688 ext. 127], SARA-INDAH [237788]
Season parking is meant to relieve partially the burden of parking, especially long term users. Season Parking is allocated in less busy areas. This is to avoid long term parking in front of shoplots, offices and other congested areas. For more information, please contact Compound Unit, Parking Division or Kuching Parking Sdn. Bhd.
“Coupon Parking - Tab, Tab, Tab Park and Go!”

If your toilet is blocked, septic overflow, sewer pipes broken, call our Sewerage Management Unit, Environmental Health Division. We also monitor the quality of effluent from the various waste treatment plants in the City.

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT   [448763 ext. 14]
The scavenging services are being monitored daily in order to provide satisfactory service to the residents. For any query, comment or suggestion, please call Solid Waste Management Unit, Environmental Health Division.

SOUND AND AV SYSTEM   [446688 ext. 134]
DBKU provides technical services on professional sound reinforcement and AV systems on a rental basis to the public, government departments and agencies. Please contact Technical Unit of Corporate & Public Relations Division for further detail.

STREET CLEANING   [448763, 446644]
Environmental Health Division is responsible for keeping streets, pavements and drains clean and free from litter, animal mess and other rubbish. We have set out quality standards and frequency of cleaning for the different areas in Kuching North. If you see streets get dirty or rubbish dumped indiscriminately by irresponsible persons, call us or our Hotline immediately.

STREET LIGHTING  [448899 ext. 27, 446644]
We look after street lights in the City North area. Report any faulty lights in your area to us by calling Road/Management Division or our Hotline.

Application for practical/attachment/transition training and study research on DBKU or any matters relating to training, please call Training Unit, Administration & Human Resource Management Division.

TENDERS AND QUOTATION   [446688 ext. 136, 137, 138, 139 & 140]
The Contract and Quantity Surveying Division handles queries of those who want to participate in Kuching North City Hall’s tenders and quotations. We also give advice to DBKU contractors and suppliers on matters pertaining to contract conditions or procedures.

TOWING TRUCK   [448762, 446644]
Avoid traffic congestion by not leaving your vehicle unattended when it breaks down. We provide towing truck for such a situation, but at a fee. For further information, please call Enforcement & Security Division or our Hotline.

TRAFFIC LIGHTS    [448899 ext.39, 446644]
Traffic lights and signals are the responsibility of the Road Management Division. If you wish to report a problem about traffic lights or signals, please call us.

We ensure the water quality of the swimming pools is safe by sending water samples from the pools to the Environmental Lab of the Environmental Health Division.

TREE CUTTING SERVICE    [446688 ext. 217, 219 & 221]
We practice Tree Conservation Policy and we will only cut the trees when they pose as a danger to the public or if the trees cannot be saved at all. Request of tree cutting on private land will be charged according to the height of the tree. There is a 50% discount f or schools and charity or welfare bodies. For further information, please call Landscape Maintenance Unit of Planning, Parks& Recreation Division.

TREE TRIMMINGS     [446688 ext. 217, 219 & 221]
We undertake tree trimming service for the public as well. The charge for this service is based on the height and the canopy of the tree. There is a 50% discount for schools and charity or welfare bodies. For further information, please call Landscape Maintenance Unit of Planning, Parks & Recreation Division.

VECTOR CONTROL    [448763 ext. 16]
We provide fogging service for areas identified with aedes mosquitoes, as well as house to house checking as an effort to minimize and control production of aedes mosquitoes. For further information on those service, please call Vector Unit, Environmental Health Division.

WASTE MINIMIZATION    [448763 ext. 15]
Based on the concept of 3R, that is ‘REDUCE, REUSE AND RECYCLE’ the Waste Minimization Unit of Environmental Health Division has been actively promoting the practice of recycling of old newspapers, drink cans and old corrugated carton boxes. All the schools, major hotels, petrol stations and most of the shopping centers are actively participating in this program. The objective is to reduce waste from being disposed into the landfill thus extending the life span of our valuable land.


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